Thermodynamics Applied to Cosmology
This is the Website of Bernard R. Bligh, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The Hot Big Bang Theory postulates that the early Universe was at a very high temperature and that the expansion of the Universe automatically brought about cooling. The property of temperature and the action of expansion of fluids are in the realm of Thermodynamics which is an experimental science.
So what does Thermodynamics have to say about the free expansion of gases ? The answer is that the free expansion of an ideal gas is a constant temperature process. The belief by cosmologists that an expanding Universe would automatically cool down is mistaken. Click here for Experimental Evidence
It appears that most cosmologists are mathematicians or theoretical physicists who have no practical experience of Thermodynamics. Click here for some comments about Learning Thermodynamics.
As I explain in my book, in my long career, I have met many scientists and engineers who are very competent in their own fields but they do not have a feel for Thermodynamics.
"The Big Bang Exploded! Cosmology Corrected, A Commentary with Thermodynamics".
Published by Bernard R. Bligh, ISBN 0-9538776-0-4, 106 pages, 25 diagrams, Price £12.00, post and packing £1.50.
4, St. James's Avenue, Hampton Hill, Middlesex, TW12 1HH. Tel. 020-8979-0874. e.mail email@example.com
Do you have a  "feel for Thermodynamics"?
A rigorous thermodynamic study of the Hot Big Bang Theory reveals many other fallacies. For example the expositions by Weinberg and by Alpher and Herman and others show a straight line relationship between fall in temperature and the expanding "scale factor". But the supposed cooling of primeval ionized hydrogen would have gone through association to atoms and then further association to hydrogen molecules. These changes bring about severe kinks in these curves when these parameters are drawn out graphically; the same goes for graphs of temperature versus internal energy. A thorough analysis of the Thermodynamics shows conclusively that the Hot Big Bang Theory violates both the First and the Second Laws of Thermodynamics. This is all described with diagrams and detailed calculations in my book.
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The reader should note that cosmologists have never done these calculations; they have never applied the correct thermodynamic properties of hydrogen. These properties are laid out in a Temperature-Entropy Diagram for hydrogen, which has never been available before now. The important point to understand is that a Temperature-Entropy Diagram contains a wealth of information which has a number of uses.
Some of the results of my calculations are shown in the diagram below.
There are times when experts in one field should take note of what an expert in another field tells them. See Piltdown Man.
About the Author
The diagram below is Figure 23, taken from my book. The abscissa is the cube root of the volume of one kg-mole of hydrogen; in effect this is a measure of the expansion factor of the Universe, i.e. the supposed expansion of the Universe follows the curves from left to right.
The ordinate is the energy in Joules associated with one kg-mole of hydrogen.
Both scales are log10. The kinks in the curves when the internal energy of hydrogen is 3.6 x 109 Joule per kg-mole come about because of the change in the properties of hydrogen as ions associate to atoms. It is evident from these graphs that the Hot Big Bang Theory does not conform to the Law of Conservation of Energy - - neither internal energy nor radiation energy. This is one of a number of reasons which prove that the Hot Big Bang Theory is thermodynamically unsound.